Electrical Systems

Impedance

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$The current lags voltage by 54.726°$


Impedance is the measure of the opposition to the flow of alternating current in a circuit.

Impedance (symbol Z) is made up of two components, resistance and reactance, and represented as a complex number

$\mathrm{Z = R + X j}$

R is the resistance and X is the reactance

Reactance X may be due to inductance or due to capacitance or both inductance and capacitance

Graphically R and X are base and height of the Right Angled Triangle, whereas Z is the Hypotenuse (see the above generated figure)

Like resistance and reactance the impedance is also measured in Ohm

Impedance can also be written in polar form as:

$\mathrm{Z = |Z|\angle \phi }$

|Z| is the magnitude of Z and φ is the impedance angle